Block - A component of a blockchain that contains transactions, the hash of a previous block and other data.
Blockchain - A digital ledger in which transactions made in cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly.
Chicago Blockchain Center Manual of Style - A well known source on how to use blockchain terms when writing content. It can be viewed here.
Decentralization - The concept of moving the control and execution of computational processes to many computers from a central entity.
Decentralized Ledger - Also known as a blockchain. A system for recording transactions on many computers that share control of data.
Decentralized App (DApp) - An application in which the backend code runs within the a blockchain. DApps are composed of open-source code and require a cryptographic token for access.
Digital Signature - A mathematical address for proving the authenticity of a digital message or document.
ERC-20 - A common type of utility token used by developers of digital currency projects on the Ethereum blockchain.
Ether - The Ethereum blockchain’s digital currency.
Ethereum - An open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system designed to allow smart contract functionality.
Ethereum Blockchain - A digitized, decentralized public ledger of all Ethereum transactions.
Exchange - An online marketplace for the exchange of crypto or fiat currencies based on the market exchange rates.
Externally Owned Account (EOA) - An account controlled by a private key. A holder of a private key associated with an EOA can send Ether and messages.
Gas - Cryptofuel that is consumed when code is executed by the Ethereum Virtual Machine. The gas is paid for the execution fee for every operation on an Ethereum Blockchain.
Hash - A function that converts an input of letters and numbers into an encrypted output of a fixed length. It is an essential part of a blockchain’s operation.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) - A distributed protocol that connects all computing devices with the same system of files. It is similar to peer-to-peer file sharing services like BitTorrent.
Non-Fungible - Not interchangeable when referring to goods or commodities.
Offchain - A transaction outside of the blockchain.
Onchain - A transaction within the blockchain.
Oracle - Trusted data feeds of real-world events used to activate smart contracts.
Payload - Program information such as a participant’s ID and grade.
Private key - An encrypted password allowing access to a digital currency wallet.
Protocol - A standard used to define a method of exchanging data on a computer network.
Public key - An encrypted password used for transactions between users.
Smart Contract - A self-executing agreement within the Ethereum blockchain.
Token - It is a form of cryptocurrency created by a startup company to fund development of a blockchain-related business idea.
Transaction - The signed data package that stores a message to be sent from an externally owned account.
Transaction Fee - Also known as gas, the amount of Ether that miners charge for execution of a transaction.
Trustless - The ability of a network to complete transactions without the involved parties knowing or trusting each other.
Unique Identity - A set of cryptographically verifiable interactions that have the property that they were all created by the same person, with the added constraint that one person cannot have multiple unique identities.
Wallet Address - A public key address that allows a wallet to receive tokens.
Web of Trust - The concept that if A highly rates B, and B highly rates C, then A is likely to trust C. Complicated and powerful mechanisms for determining the reliability of specific individuals in specific concepts can theoretically be gathered from this principle.
Whitelist - A roster of registered and approved participants.